Canine bone biopsies include taking a small sample of bone marrow for analysis under the microscope. Bone marrow refers to the spongy tissue that fills the hollow centers of bones. The ends of the bones do not contain any of them.
When it comes to dogs, the synthesis of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets, is the primary function of the bone marrow. After completing their maturation in the bone marrow, the blood cells eventually make their way into the dog’s circulatory system. If your pup has an infection, his/her bone marrow will produce extra white blood cells to help them fight the disease.
What is the average cost of a bone biopsy in the US?
Dog bone biopsies can range in price from around $1000 to $2000; however, this might vary depending on where you live. Payment varies according to location, dog’s age, type of dog, and on dog’s health status.
Other things that affect the dog bone biopsy cost include the following:
- Anesthetic drugs
- V. Catheter
- V. Fluids
- Hospitalization if required
- Take home medications
- Consultations for Follow-Up
Types of Bone Biopsies in Dogs and Their Cost
There are two types of canine biopsies in dogs:
- Needle biopsy: It uses a specialized need to aspirate the bone sample. It costs around $1000 to $1200.
- Open biopsy: It involves the removal of a dog’s bone part after removing skin and muscles. It usually costs around $1200 to $2000.
What Can Be Determined from a Biopsy of a Dog’s Bone Marrow?
A physician can diagnose the following diseases with the use of the findings from a canine bone marrow biopsy:
- Rare hereditary diseases
- Blood malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphoma, etc
- Stem cell disorders
The results of these dog bone biopsies can also be used by vets better understand canine blood cancer, including the subtype and stage of the disease, to assess whether or not a treatment is effective, and to monitor any adverse effects that may be caused by chemotherapy.
How Do Veterinarians Take a Sample of a Dog’s Bone Marrow?
1. Needle Bone Biopsy:
A bone marrow biopsy requires the patient to be sedated or given anesthesia before it can be performed. In most cases, a large biopsy needle is introduced into the patient’s bone until it penetrates the bone marrow, and then a tiny sample of the bone marrow is taken in through the needle (aspirated). After that, the needle is removed, and the bone marrow is transferred on a glass slide.
The animal can be placed in various postures during the biopsy, depending on the area that has fluid extracted from it. Aspiration can commonly occur in the ribs, bone of the front forelimb (near the shoulder), bone of the hip, and bone of the thigh. Other typical locations include the sternum and the pelvis.
2. Open bone biopsy:
In an open bone biopsy, first, anesthesia is given to dogs. After then, open surgery is performed by any surgeon, cutting out the larger piece of bone for sampling.
Can any bone be used to extract bone marrow?
Even though quite a few of the bones contain bone marrow, samples are taken from the three primary locations in both dogs. These include:
- Hip bone
- Thigh bone
- Shoulder bone (Front limbs)
Is Performing a Biopsy of the Dog’s Bone Marrow Painful?
Yes. It is painful when the needle is inserted through the skin and into the dog’s bone. The amount of pain that each individual dog goes through as a result of the needle and the procedure varies, just like it does for people.
Is it Necessary to Use Sedation or General Anesthesia for a Bone Marrow Biopsy?
The insertion of the needle into the skin is made significantly less uncomfortable by the administration of a local anesthetic. Unless the canine patient is in critical condition or extremely ill, a general tranquilizer or general anesthetic is frequently used in order to sedate the dog completely.